Shrinkage limit of clay soil

Ve los libros recomendados de tu género preferido. Envío gratis a partir de $59 The shrinkage limit is one of the Atterberg limits and is a fundamental geotechnical parameter used to assess the settlement of engineering soils containing clays, yet is rarely tested for as part of ground investigation 10 The shrinkage limit is one of the Atterberg limits and is a fundamental geotechnical parameter used for 11 the assessment of the settlement of clay soils due to reduction in water content, yet is rarely tested for as 12 part of ground investigation. This paper describes shrinkage limit test results on a variety of soils fro

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The clay has high plasticity with moisture content at the liquid limit (LL) of 80%, at the plastic limit (PL) of 39% and 25% at shrinkage limit (SL). Physical and chemical characteristics are presented in Table 1 Shrinkage limit is minimum when there are optimum proportions of sand size, silt size and clay size particles in that soil and presence of poor proportions of different-sized particles yields a higher shrinkage limit values A new apparatus for determining the shrinkage limit of clay soils. Geotechnique, Vol. 64(3), 195-203. Hobbs, P R N, Jones, L D, Northmore, K J, and Entwisle, D C. 2000. Shrinkage behaviour of some tropical clays. 675-680 in Proceedings of the Asian Conference on Unsaturated Soils. Rahardjo, Toll, D, and Leong (editors), UNSAT-ASIA 2000, Singapore. (Rotterdam: A A Balkema.

Plastic limit is defined as the moisture content at which a thread of soil with 3 mm diameter begins to crumble [ 1 ]. According to Holtz et al. [ 2 ], the threads should break up into segments of about 3 mm to 10 mm. At Shrinkage Limit, the soil is just fully saturated Day (1994) investigated the swell-shrink behaviour of a compacted clay exposed to cycles of wetting and drying at temperature that represented field situations, the samples used are silty clay of liquid limit of 46% and plasticity index of 24%. The samples contain 9% of fine sand, 59% silt and 32% clay CLAY SOILS UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Dhanya Sree, PG student, Dept of CE, College of Engg, TVM, Kerala, associated with variations of water content in soil. Shrinkage limit test is conducted for both bentonite and Kaolinite with NaOH of different concentration like 0.25 M, 0.5M, 1M and 2M. Variation of shrinkage limit for bentonite and kaolinite for different concentration. Shrinkage limit can be determined in the laboratory using a disturbed or undisturbed soil sample. Principle for Determining the Shrinkage Limit of Soil: Figure 5.11 shows the schematic diagram in which a fully saturated soil in stage I having volume V 1 undergoes shrinkage and on complete drying reaches stage III, where the entire water is evaporated. Between stages I and III lies stage II, where the soil is at shrinkage limit water content. In stage II, the soil is fully saturated, but a.

Shrinkage limit test results and interpretation for clay soil

commercially available bentonite. This soil, a typical of highly expansive clay, has montmorillonite as chief clay mineral. The specific gravity, liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit of this soil are found to be 2.63, 459.94%, 53.7% and 7% respectively. As per ASTM D2487, the soil is classified as clay with high plasticity (CH). The residua Shrinkage Limit Determination For the determination of shrinkage limit the soil is air dried and sieved through 425 micron IS sieve to get fine grained soil only. Because we know Atterberg limits are only significant for the fine grained soils. 425 micron IS sieve has its mesh openings of 425 micron or 0.425 mm 68 For most British clay soils and mudrocks the values of shrinkage limit lie in the range 69 12 to 25 % whilst for some tropical and bentonitic clay soils values lie between 30 70 and 50 % (Hobbs et al . 2012) The paper presents a study on the shrinkage properties of three clay soils from Poland. Shrinkage limit, volumetric shrinkage and relative volumetric shrinkage were determined, tested according to PN-88/B-04481 (1988) and BS1377: Part 2 (1990) and correlated with the index properties of soils. The shrinkage limit was also calculated from Krabbe's (1958) equation. The results showed that shrinkage limit values obtained by the BS method are lower than those obtained using the PN. The percentage increase in shrinkage limit of oil contaminated clay soil is by a maximum of 14 % in the case of immediate effect and 9 % for the aging period of 28 days. It can be concluded from the shrinkage limit and FSI, the swelling potential for oil contaminated clay is decreased with increase in the oil content level. b) Engineering properties. Shear strength of oil contaminated clay is.

limit, and shrinkage limits define the relative stages of behavior as indicated below when the soil moves from the solid to liquid state. The soil classification of fine grained soils based on these limits is also shown below. The limits of good clay vs bad clay, if there is such a thing, is defined as a Liquid Limit less than 50 and Plasticity Index less than 20 for silts and clays (ML/CL. The average water content out of three trials to the nearest whole number is reported as the plastic limit. 3. Shrinkage Limit: Shrinkage limit is the water content at which the soil changes from the semi-solid state to the solid state. For fine-­grained soils, it was observed that a decrease in the water content causes a corresponding decrease in the volume of the soil, when the soil is in plastic or semi-solid state. At some water content, a further reduction of the water content does not.

The liquid limit of a soil is an indicator of the compressibility of a soil. The compressibility of the soil generally increases with an increase in liquid limit; The shrinkage index is directly proportional to the percentage of clay-size fraction present in the soil. It can be used as an indicator of clay. The toughness index is a measure of the shearing strength of the soil at the plastic limit. A high value of toughness index indicates a high percentage of colloidal clay containing. The Atterberg limits are a basic measure of the critical water contents of a fine-grained soil: its shrinkage limit, plastic limit, and liquid limit.. Depending on its water content, a soil may appear in one of four states: solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid.In each state, the consistency and behavior of a soil is different and consequently so are its engineering properties They, however, do not alter the shrinkage and plastic limits of the clay; (iii) The slope of the SSCC in the normal and residual shrinkage stages is not influenced by DW cycles but reduces after FT cycles due to the development of microcracks. The untreated expansive clay during shrinkage exhibit a gradual transition from one-dimensional subsidence to three-dimensional isotopically shrinkage and this is not altered by DW cycles. Specimens exhibit throughout isotopic shrinkage once. A Modified Technique for Measuring Shrinkage of Clay Soils M.1. TARIFUL, W.H. WAN SULAIMAN and D. AHMADI Faculty ofAgriculture IFaculty ofEngineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Fax: 603-9434419 Email: k275382@hotmail.com Keywords: Shrinkage, volume change, soil, mercury, wax, sand, modified technique ABSTRAK Kaedah-kaedahD427dan D4943 'TheAmerican. 1. most of the water in soils is associated with clay minerals [3]; 2. the pore sizes that effectively control fluid flow at the liquid limit are the same size for all soils [1] and, hence, the quantity of free pore water at the liquid limit is a constant; 3. soils have similar pore water suction at the liquid limit [4-6]. This means that the.

By extrapolating the curve thus obtained an approximation for the limiting value of the shrinkage in the case of pure colloidal clay is arrived at amounting to approximately 23 per cent. 3. On this assumption it becomes possible to calculate the approximate content of colloidal material in any soil from a knowledge of the linear shrinkage. 4. Results are adduced, showing the values obtained. The Atterberg limits of a clay soil are: Liquid limit = 63%, Plastic limit = 40%, and shrinkage limi. Watch later

Shrinkage Limit - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. ation of Shrinkage Limit of Remoulded Soil Equipment for Shrinkage Limit Test. Shrinkage dish having flat bottom, 45mm diameter and 15 mm height; Two large evaporating dishes about 120mm diameter with a pour out and flat bottom. One small mercury dish 60mm diameter; Two glass plate, one plain and one with prongs, 75mm x 75mm x 3mm size
  2. Soil Shrinkage Characteristics in Swelling Soils This occurs provided the soil has less 8 % swelling clays (Dexter 1988). Although moderate, this swelling is highly important to the regeneration of soil structure after a given damage. Processes taking place in swelling soils during drying and wetting Different processes take place when a swelling soil dries or swells. On drying the soil.
  3. A clay has the following Atterberg limits: liquid limit = 60%, plastic limit = 40%, shrinkage limit = 25%. The clay shrinks from 15 cubic meters to 9. cubic centimeters when the moisture content is decreased from the liquid limit to the shrinkage limit. What is the specific gravity. What is the plasticity index
  4. e shrinkage characteristics and the respective shrinkage curves are presented and discussed. The direct measurement of the limit of shrinkage from the shrinkage curves of the Linear Shrinkage and Shrinkage Limit tests are discussed and compared to the calculated.

(PDF) Shrinkage Behaviour of Clay Soils: An experimental

Determination of Shrinkage Limit of Soil. Apparatus. Procedure. In 1911, the Swedish agriculturist Atterberg divided the entire range of soil state (from liquid to solid state) into four stages, which is known as Atterberg Limits or Consistency Limits. 1. The liquid state, 2. The plastic state, 3 27 test apparatus for the important, but neglected, Atterberg limit: the shrinkage limit. A 28 range of clay soils has been tested using both version 1 and SHRINKiT in order to 29 prove the concept. The other two Atterberg limits have been included so that 30 correlations, both familiar and new, can be examined. 31 32 Annual insurance costs for subsidence attributed to swell/shrink in Britain. DOI: 10.1144/qjegh2018-100 Corpus ID: 134816118. Shrinkage limit test results and interpretation for clay soils @article{Hobbs2018ShrinkageLT, title={Shrinkage limit test results and interpretation for clay soils}, author={P. Hobbs and L. Jones and M. Kirkham and D. Gunn and D. Entwisle}, journal={Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology}, year={2018}, volume={52}, pages={220.

Swelling and shrinking soils - British Geological Surve

For the particle size analysis clay contents are percentages of soil fractions smaller than 0.002mm. The clay fraction obtained is CL type. Falling head permeability test were done to find its coefficient of permeability and obtained as 4.89x10-10 m/s .Plasticity characteristics liquid limit (wL) is 34%, plastic limit (wP) is 23%, shrinkage limit is 21% and plasticity index (IP) is 11%, were. Apple Sales & Service. Home; About Us; Services; Products; Contact Us; Post The shrinkage limit of a natural soil has been shown to be primarily a result of the packing phenomenon, which in turn is governed by the grain-size distribution of the soil; the shrinkage limit of pure clays appears to be affected by the fabric also. Even though clay-sized particles play an important role in the shrinkage phenomenon, there is an optimum clay content at which the shrinkage.

Shrinkage Limit Studies from Moisture Content: Electrical

Atterberg demonstrated the significance of these limits in understanding the behaviour of clays. So these limits are also called Atterberg limits. When we mix fine grained soil in large quantities of water the resulting suspension of soil is called as liquid state of soil. In this state soil has virtually no shear strength which means soil has zero shear strength. Also it offers practically no. Fig. 5.12. Change in the volume of the soil sample during shrinkage: a) graphs for determining the shrinkage limit: 1 - the first stage of the day: 11 - the second drying step: w, the humidity of the clay soil at the shrinkage limit; b) the stages of shrinkage of soils: I - structural shrinkage: II - normal (linear shrinkage) The shrinkage limit is less frequently used than the liquid and plastic limits. The shrinkage limit is determined as follows. A mass of wet soil, M 1, is placed in a porcelain dish 44.5 mm in diameter and 12.5 mm high and then oven-dried. The volume of oven-dried soil is determined by using mercury to occupy the vacant spaces caused by.

Note: At liquid limit of plastic limit soil is super saturated i.e. degree of saturation is greater than 1 and at solid or semi solid state soil is partially saturated. Montomorlllinite is clay mineral. It is generally found in Black cotton soil which shows highly swelling and shrinkage behaviour. It has large amount of water and other. Additional data on a total of 11 clay soils are given in Reference 5. Soil No. Cement Content, percent Plasticity Index Shrinkage Limit, percent 1 none 30 13 3 13 24 5 12 30 7 none 36 13 3 21 26 5 17 32 10 none 43 14 3 24 24 5 16 31 Data from index tests 1 Estimation of Plasticity Index (ASTM D4318) Shrinkage limit, percent (ASTM D427) Colloid. The shrinkage limit is one of the Atterberg limits and is a fundamental geotechnical parameter used to assess the settlement of engineering soils containing clays, yet is rarely tested for as part of ground investigation. This paper describes shrinkage limit test results on a variety of soils from Britain and overseas obtained using an improved laboratory testing procedure developed at the.

In 1911, Mr. Atterberg (A Swedish soil scientist) first demonstrated the significance of these limits, hence these limits are termed as Atterberg limits. These limits are liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit. They are of great significance in understanding the behaviour of clays. Liquid Limit (w L The liquid limit W of a clay soil is 54%, and its plasticity index l, is 15%. a) What is the plastic limit W, of the soil? b) In what state of consistency is this material, at a moisture content of 40%? c) At the minimum volume reached during shrinkage, a sample of this soil has a void ratio of 0.87. If the specific gravity of solids is equal to 2.72, compute the shrinkage limit Ws The Atterberg limits of a soil or clay are the liquid limit, plastic limit, and plastic index, and Allenl defi.nes them as follows: 1. Liquid limit is the moisture content, expressed as a percentage by weight of the oven-dry soil, at which the soil will just begin to flow when jarred slightly. 2. Plastic limit is the lowest moisture content, expressed as a per-* Published with the.

Atterberg limits are the group of tests and it is consisting of shrinkage limit, plastic limit and liquid limit. These tests are conducted to measure the water requirements in a soil for achieving fully compaction state and bearing capacity of the soil. In this work, liquid limit and plastic limit tests were carried out for various combinations of lime and RHA with clay soil. The tests results. An investigation into Atterberg limits and their suitability for assessing the shrinkage and swelling characteristics of clay soils for foundation design. In: Jefferson, I. and Frost, M.W. (eds.). International Conference on Problematic Soils, Nottingham, United Kingdom, July 2003 The Shrinkage limit, Plastic Limit and Liquid limit together form the Atterberg limits, important for the effect of water on clay or silt soils. The relationship between the three is that the shrinkage limit defines when dry soil becomes friable, the plastic limit is where the soil becomes malleable and the liquid limit where the soil becomes liquid and able to flow

Expansive soils are problematic soils that have shrinkage and swelling history due to changing water content on a particular clay mineral type (i.e., montmorillonite). Another method rare using in general practice in our country is the linear shrinkage (British Standard). The last test is easier and faster to obtain than the shrinkage limit method. Some researchers proposed swelling potential. Theory of Plastic limit and liquid limit test: Liquid limit:. During the drying process, initially, the liquid state reaches a consistency at which the Soil ceases to... Plastic limit:. As the drying process continues, the soil volume and the plasticity decreases. The plastic state reaches.... Liquid limit of the fine grained soil is controlled by Clay content, Type of clay mineral and its shape and size [4]. Addition of lime to the fine grained soil improves the plasticity, workability and strength [5, 6] [7]. Further addition of NaOH and NaCl accelerate the benefits of lime [8]. Liquid limit of low plastic clays cannot be determined by Casagarande apparatus because of Difficulty. Soil groups in BLUE show materials suitable for clay liner construction Major Divisions Group Symbol Group Name Co arse grained soils more than 50% retained on no. 200 sieve Gravel more than 50% of coarse fraction retained on no. 4 sieve Sand more than 50% of coarse fraction passes no. 4 sieve Silt and clay liquid limit less than 50 Silt and clay Different types of clays have different specific surface areas which controls how much wetting is required to move a soil from one phase to another such as across the liquid limit or the plastic limit. From the activity one can predict the dominant clay type present in a soil sample. High activity signifies large volume change when wetted and large shrinkage when dried. Soils with high.

Why does high plastic soil have a low shrinkage limit? - QuoraStrength of Natural Soil Bricks

Clay soils having high plasticity index with high liquid limit, is called highly plastic clays, sometimes called fat clays those have low values called lean or slightly plastic clays. According to Atterberg (1911), soils can be classified based on plastic indices as shown in table Some exceptions Inorganic clays from non-volcanic origin usually have liquid limit less than 100 at best equals. Soils having shrinkage limit more than 25 are also not suitable for dam construction. The shrinkage limit should be higher than the optimum moisture content (OMC), otherwise dam section will develop cracks on moisture reduction (drying). If the shrinkage limit of the soil is lower than the OMC, then the soil should be used for the inner core only. Outer shell should consist of soils having a. The Atterberg limits (shrinkage limit [SL], plastic limit [PL], and liquid limit [LL]) describe the physico-mechanical behavior of soils and thus are crucial for civil and agricultural applications. Conventional laboratory methods for measurement of these limits are tedious and costly for a large number of samples. Our objective was to develop visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS. shrinkage limit. [ ′shriŋ·kij ‚lim·ət] (geology) That moisture content of a soil below which a decrease in moisture content will not cause a decrease in volume, but above which an increase in moisture will cause an increase in volume

The soil may be in one of four states such as solid, semi-solid, plastic, and liquid depending on the water content of soil and to determine the liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit of soils Atterberg limits methods are used and these Atterberg limits are defined in ASTM Standard D4318 The linear shrinkage is found by determining the change in length of the semi-cylindrical bar sample of soil when it dries out, starting from its liquid limit or near the liquid limit. This test gives the percentage linear shrinkage of a soil and it can be used for the soil of low plasticity including silts, as well as for clays Shrinkage Limit Test of Soil. Scope. To determine the shrinkage limit, shrinkage ratio, shrinkage index, and volumetric shrinkage of soils. Apparatus. 1. Evaporating dishes. 2. Spatula. 3. Shrinkage dish - 45 mm diameter and 15 mm in height. 4. Straight edge -150 mm in length. 5. Glass plates, plain and with metal prongs - 75 mm x 75 mm, 3 mm thick. 6. Glass cup - 50 to 55 mm in diameter. and other volume change parameters of engineering soils containing clays. This paper describes shrinkage limits and index tests results on expansive soil treated with rice husk ash (RHA) and 5%, 10% and 15% quicklime activated rice husk ash (QARHA) obtained using laboratory testing procedure. The representative soil was subjected to classification tests and it was found to be high expansive.

How to Determine the Shrinkage Limit of Soi

Shrinkage Limit And Semi-solid State Of Soil - Soil

  1. Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils.It differs from fluid mechanics and solid mechanics in the sense that soils consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluids (usually air and water) and particles (usually clay, silt, sand, and gravel) but soil may also contain organic solids and other matter
  2. Civil Engineering Q&A Library.A sample of clay soil has a liquid limit of 62% and its plasticity index is 32 percent.(1) What is the state of consistency of the soil if the soil in its natural state has a water content of 34 percent? (11) Calculate the shrinkage limit if the void ratio of the sample at the shrinkage limit is 0.70 Assume Gs = 2.70. %3
  3. imum. It was further illustrated that the shrinkage limit is not at all related to the.
OR/12/032 Geohazards - Earthwise

In a shrinkage limit test, a sample of saturated clay was dried in the oven. The dry mass of the soil was 22.5 g. As shown in Figure 4.13, when the moisture content is at the shrinkage limit, the soil reaches a constant total volume, V f.If V f = 10.3 cm 3, calculate the shrinkage limit of the soil.Given: G s = 2.7 Clay Soils. 2 Shrinkage Limit (SL) Solid Plastic Limit (PL) Liquid Limit (LL) Increasing water content Stress Strain Stress Strain Stress Strain Linear elastic - brittle failure Non-linear inelastic Elastic - Plastic Semi- Solid Plastic Liquid STATE STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR AT VARIOUS STATES. 3 Liquid Limit (LL) 4 Atterberg Device Liquid Limit (LL) Moisture content that closes gaps @ 25 blows.

Influence of soil grading on the characteristics of cement

shrinkage limit of contaminated clay soil was more with an increase in percentage of contamination. But the time period of contamination not showing any change as compared to the immediate response. However, the plastic limit increased from 28 % to 35 % as seen from Fig. 4 whereas the shrinkage limit Shrinkage Limit ASTM D-427 Lower limit water content of R = shrinkage ratio soil shrinkage LS = linear shrinkage Clay content ASTM D-422 Distribution of fine-grained Percent finer than 2 µm particles sizes Mineralogical tests Whiting (1964)Mineralogy of clay particles X-ray diffraction ASTM STP (1970 clay-size fraction by weight Soil volume = • Soil mass ml dish Figure 3.17 Shrinkage limit test: (a) soil pat before *Soil volume = VI Soil mass = In In , (b) soil pat after — nt2 (100) —I W' 1112 . SOLID SEMI-SOLID PLASTIC LIQUID Table 3.3 Mineral Smectites Illite Kaolinite Activity of clay minerals Activity, A 1-7 0.5-1 0.5 0.5-1.2 0.5-1.2 Halloysite (2H20) Holloysite (4H20. atterberg limits (Shrinkage limit, plastic limit and liquid limit), standard proctor compaction test and soaked CBR test were conducted as per BIS standards. Results and Discussion Sieve analysis The sieve analysis test is carried out in clay soil to ascertain the presence of clay content. The test results are shown in Table 1 From the table, it can be noted that the coarse soil particle is.

Any cohesive soil can involve clay minerals, but montmorillonite or bentonite clay minerals are more active regarding swelling-shrinkage. Swelling is calculated by swelling experiments with chemical and mineralogical analysis, soil indices and some empirical formulas from soil classifications. The shrinkage limit is determined from a laboratory test or approximate calculation recommended by. During the determination of the shrinkage limit of a sandy clay, the following laboratory data was obtained: Wet wl. of soil + dish - 91.04 g Dry wt. of soil + dish = 78.22 g Wt. of dish - 51.55 g Volumetric determination of soil pat: Wt. of dish + mercury = 430.80 g Wt. of dish = 244.62 g. Calculate the shrinkage limit of the soil, assuming p i = 2.65 Mg/nv\ Step-by-step solution: Chapter. Hi Suryakanta, I'm constructing an earth wall dam and have a non-cracking medium clay subsoil. i've been reading up on soil tests for determination of the suitability of in-situ soils and it seems that soil dispersion and shrinkage tests are most relevant for assessment of suitability, and the plastic limit is relevant for construction, identifying the optimum moisture content for compaction

Testing shrinkage factors: comparison of methods and

Physical and Engineering properties of Oil Contaminated

The limit is defined as the moisture content, in percent, required to close a distance of 0.5 inches along the bottom of a groove after 25 blows in a liquid limit device. Liquid Limit (LL or wL) - the water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbitrarily defined boundary between the semi-liquid and plastic states. Atterberg Limits Chart water content at which the soil remains plastic. The Shrinkage Limit (SL) is the water content at which the phase of the soil changes from semi-solid to the solid state (Sridharan and Prakash 1998). As shown in . Soil-Cement Type Cement-Modified Soil (CMS) Cement-Stabilized Subgrade (CSS) Benefit • Promotes soil drying • Provides significant improvement to : working platform • Provides a. Black cotton soils are inorganic clay of medium to high compressibility and form a major soil group of India. The black colour in black cotton soil is due to the presence of Titanium oxide in small concentration. The Black cotton soil has a percentage of clay which is predominantly montmorillonite structures and black or blackish grey in colour. They are characterized by high shrinkage, low. Shrinkage Limit Test is one of the Atterberg Limits methods of defining characteristics of cohesive soils. The shrinkage limit of cohesive soils is defined as the water content at which further loss of moisture will not cause a decrease in volume. The shrinkage limit apparatus includes components necessary to run the test. ASTM recommends this new method as an alternative to the original D427. 109. A clay is found to have a liquid limit of 75%, a plastic limit 45% and shrinkage limit of 25%. If a sample of this soil has a total volume of 30 cm 3 at the liquid limit and a volume of 16.7 cm 3 at the shrinkage limit, determine the following. a. Mass of soil at the shrinkage limit. ans: 26.6 b. Shrinkage ratio ans: 1.6 c. Specific gravity of solids ans:2.67 110

Shrinkage Limit Testing Tools. Shrinkage limit is a test that evaluates the water content of a soil where further loss of moisture will not result in an additional volume reduction. The test to determine the shrinkage limit is ASTM D4943. The shrinkage limit is much less commonly used than the liquid and plastic limits Note - Plasticity in soil is due to the presence of clay minerals. If it does not contain clay minerals, it would not become plastic or these cannot be rolled into threads. 3. Shrinkage Limit (w s) - Shrinkage limit is defined as the maximum water content at which reduction in water content will not cause a decrease in the volume of soil mass. It is the lowest water content at which a soil. age limit, at which point all water resides in isolated pockets or in films around soil particles. - Zero shrinkage: the clay particles have reached their densest configuration. The clay volume does not de-crease any further and water loss is equal to the increase of the air volume in the clay. An additional shrinkage phase is often considered for shrinkage of aggregated soils (large. - 0.01 mm). Thus when measuring clay minerals content in soil, clay percentage can be considered the same as the percentage of particles smaller than 0.002 mm (colloidal clay and physical clay). The limit value of 0.002 mm, which divides clay particles from fine silt, is the value used most worldwide [5] 2.2. Characteristics of the observed are

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